Sufyan Awan
Student, University of Agriculture Faisalabad

There was a time when people eat Healthy homemade sugar (gurr) and live a long, healthy life. Then suddenly a new scientific approach introduced and it totally put us apart from health and harmony, in villages specially, and started to produce White sugar. Within few decades, sugar industry spread, not only in developed, but also in developing countries and Developed countries always have perfect legislations for introduction of innovations but this might not be the same in developing countries, which always accepts innovations with open arms, due to loose legislation management.

Main Question is where does white sugar come from? The main source of white sugar is sugar-cane. In history, sugar-cane was reportedly cultivated in around 6,000 BC by the people of New Guinea. They formerly used it for chewing purpose. From here, it spread to India in 500 BC and then in 11th century it was spread to China and Africa. Christopher Columbus brought the sugar-cane to New World in 1493 and, in 16th-17thcentury, to Europeans. In South-Indies, human started sugar-cane cultivation in between 18th and 19th century. Sugar consumption in England was increased up to 15%. Now-a-days, refined sugar is used in different bakery, drinks and industrial products etc.

World Scenario:

In 1950’s, about 12% American were obese and increased up to 35% in weight in 2000’s. Similarly, in United Kingdoms, 6% were obese in 1980s now this amount has increased up to three times. Till 2016, two-third of Britain’s population was facing obesity (Type-2 diabetes).

In Pakistan:

In Pakistan, sugar production is 6 million tones and the consumption is 200,000 tons (USDA Analysis, May, 2017). Sugar is the 2nd largest industry in Pakistan after Textile. The estimated per capita consumption of sugar in Pakistan is 25 kg which is highest in Asia comprising China with 11 kg, India with 20 kg and Bangladesh with 10kg per capita consumption.

Disadvantages:

According to groups of doctors, nutritionist, and biologist, “Sugar is a toxin that disturbs the Body organs, hormonal cycle, as well as, it is the main cause of weak willpower, which are the major problem of our generation, now-a-days” (Mark Batman). Furthermore, major drawbacks of sugar are obesity and metabolic disorders, like diabetes as one third of American, 12.5 million children are obese and in 2011 about 12 million American had the illness. Sugar is one of the major causes of Heart disease and obesity (John, 1972). By combing the two documents from 1950s and 1960s, Researcher from San Francisco and University of California reported that Sugar industries diverting the attention of Sugar consumers away from Heart diseases, fat and cholesterol caused by it, by promoting and sponsoring the researches in favour of sugar.

The major sources of energy for our body are Fats, carbohydrates and proteins. The more palatable and useful carbohydrate is sugar. Sugar is also called childhood alcohol as one third American children are obese. A growing body of scientific evidence is showing that fructose can trigger processes that lead to liver toxicity and a host of other chronic diseases. Robert Lusting said that; ‘Sugar is the alcohol of child, and that’s why children today are getting the diseases of alcohol-type 2 diabetes and fatty liver diseases’

Here the question arises that our ancestors consume sugar but they never faced such kind of problems? Simple answer is that Nature never provide them sugar for whole year, they consume sugar from fruits which was available only for few months, but now, human is in full access to sugar. Today more than 70% commodities are sugar based. A lot of countries and cities banned the alcohol and tobacco at childhood level. But still children have more cases of fats, obesity, liver and heart diseases why? Because main thing in their diet is sugar and sugar based commodities. Now-a-days, in many parts of the world, people are consuming an average of more than 500 calories per day from sugar alone (‘the global sugar glut’).

Sugar usually causes the diseases related to Metabolic syndrome i.e. diabetes, hypertension (Todays most common in Pakistani new generations), Aging process enhancement, it also causes toxic effects on liver just as in case of alcohol. The United States spends $65 billion in lost productivity and $150 billion on health-care resources annually for morbidities associated with metabolic syndrome. Seventy-five per cent of all US health-care dollars are now spent on treating these diseases and their resultant disabilities. Another research conducted in 2013 including 175 countries clearly showed that sugar intake directly increases the diabetes risks. The study also found that participants who consumed approximately 17 to 21 per cent of their daily calories in the form of added sugar, had about 38 percent higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease, compared to those who got roughly 8 percent of their total calories from added sugar. Recent and mounting scientific evidence clearly proves that sugar — and flour, which raises blood sugar even more than table sugar — is biologically addictive. In fact, it’s as much as eight times more addictive than cocaine.

The Ministry of Commerce (MoC) has constituted 35 committees across the country to promote the agricultural sector which was neglected in past to save the country from food security. The committees would boost regional trade and monitor agriculture import and exports trade patterns, including import pricing, and highlight issues and give recommendations in regard to trade facilitation for agriculture products.
PrintThe committees would discuss and suggest recommendations to resolve problems confronted by growers, exporters and suppliers and other related issues. The regional trade committees would submit their reports and recommendations to the concerned ministries directly. The representatives of ministries or departments would be member of regional trade committees. The ministries and departments include Ministry of National Food and Security and Research Division, Ministry of Science and Technology, Trade Development Authority of Pakistan, National Tariff Commission of Pakistan, Punjab, Sindh, agriculture departments, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan Agriculture, Livestock and Co-operative departments, Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority, Pakistan National Accreditation Council, NAPHIS, Department of Plant Protection and Department of Animal Quarantine. The representatives of chambers, farmers associations, mango & citrus association, Rice Exporters Association and other bodies would also be member of the committees. The chairmen of Islamabad Poultry and Vegetable Farmers Association, Faisalabad, Pakistan Agriculture and Dairy Farmers Association, Lahore, Pakistan Dairy Association, Lahore, Pakistan Rice Exporters Association, Pakistan Sugar Mills Association, Multan Mango Growers Association, All Pakistan Fruits and Vegetable Exporters, Importers and Merchants Association, Karachi, Pakistan Fruits Processors Association, Islamabad, Pakistan Flour Mills Association, Lahore, All Pakistan Crop Protection Association, Lahore, Seed Association of Pakistan, Sindh Badger Board, Hyderabad would be included in the committees.

Source: Business Recorder

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Saccharum officinarum

INTROUDCITON:

Sugar cane is C4 plant it is a parineal crop. The plant takes 10 to 12 month under Pakistani condition. 18 month under Australian condition and 24 month in Cuba and Brazil condition to complete its life cycle. The plant grows from seed set called as plant crop. It is vegetative plant. Rising of succeeding crop after harvesting first year crop is known as ratoon crop. Sugar cane is very sensitive to cold injury. During frost conversion of sucrose to glucose takes place. The sugar mill are interested in sucrose while the farmer are interested in sugar cane weight. Therefore we need high sugar and high weight variety. It is a true seeded plant. They have five sub species

· Saccharum spontanium

· Saccharum sinensis

· Saccharum Bari beri

· Saccharum robustum

· Saccharum officinarum

 

SOIL REQUIREMENT:

Sugar cane can be grown in low fertile, medium fertile and high fertile soil. It is very essential the sugar cane should be grown in high fertile soil because of parineal crop and produce high biomass.

CLIMATE:

The sugar cane is tropical crop it can tolerate high temperature but the optimum temperature at the time of sowing should not be less than 12 ºC to 18 ºC. The optimum temperature for growth is 30 ºC.

PLANTING SEASON:

There are two seasons:

· Winter season (September sowing)

· Spring season (February to March sowing)

In winter season intercropping takes place for example onion in Sindh and wheat, mustard in Punjab. In February to March only onion can be sown.

LAND PREPARATION:

Sugar cane requires deep tillage. Deep tillage includes Mould board plough and those farmers who do not have tractor they use Sarkar plough made up of wood. There are two types of sowing in sugar cane. Sugar cane is sow in furrow area as it is water-loving plant. Row to row distance is 3-5 ft.

CONTENTS:

Thin variety seed is sown for 60-70 munds per acre. It contains 13-14% fiber & 70% water, 10-11% sugar and 2-3% impurities, 1-2% glucose. We have to evaporate the water than we will get the sugar. Plant to plant distance is 9-12 inches over lapping of sets take place. Buds and leaf grown alternately. Leaf covers the bud to protect it in order to safe the bud from the outer environments. If the bud damages than the growth does not occurs/ takes place.

SEED SELECTION:

Ratoon type crop are not selected. It is better to cut the top portion of crop as top portion contain good amount of glucose and lower portion contain sucrose. Immature seed is better than mature plant seeds. 40,000 to 60,000 sets are grown in 1 acre.

VARIETIES:

· BL-4 Barbados + Lyallpur

· POJ Java variety in Indonesia

· COL In India 113-116 Comibitor + Lyallpur

· BF Barbados + Faisalabad 129

· BF-162

· Thatta-10

· SPSG-26

· CP Canal point

 

GERMINATION RATE:

· Top portion of sugar cane give 70% germination

· Middle portion of sugar cane give 40% germination

· Basal portion contain more salts therefore its germination is 30%

· Covering of sugar cane is called “rind” which contain parenchyma cells it contain sugar content.

· Roots are known as fibrous roots.

· When the stem bends and than the root which arises are known as butterious roots.

· Basal root contain glucose only which help in growth.

· Earthing up (prevents from water logging) should be done in the month of June.

· One bud can arises 40 to 50 sugar cane.

SEED TREATEMENT:

Sugar cane seed in the form of sets can be treated with fungicides or in hot water.

SOIL FERTILITY:

Before land preparation we need good manuring crop. Before seeding or flowering we have to plough the green manuring. After this we have to irrigate the land in order to decompose the green manuring. Before sowing the crop a month ago we have to do manuring 10 to 15 tones per acre should be use a month ago before sowing the crop. Farmyard manuring should be decomposing properly.

FERTILIZER REQUIREMENT:

First we have to satisfy the phosphorous requirement.

· At sowing:

2 bags of DAP or 2 bags of TSP or 5 bags of SSP and 1 bag of SOP or MOP.

· Seedling stage:

It comes after 1 month of sowing. 1 bag of urea when the temperature is high above 20 ºC than 2 bag of A.N is used.

· Tillering stage:

This stage comes after 2 month of sowing 1 bag of urea. After 3 months of tillering 1 bag of urea is used.

IRRIGATION:

In September sowing (autumn) we need 40%
to 45% time of irrigation of crops. For February to March sowing we need 30% to 34% times irrigation of crop (spring season). For September irrigation we need 4.5-acre foot water. For February to March irrigation we need 3-acre foot of water.

 

DISEASES:

· Red rot

· Whips smut

· Mossaic virus

· Ratoon stunting disease (RSD)

Sugarcane a complete guideCONTROL:

· Healthy seed

· Resistance variety

· Crop rotation

INSECT PEST:

· Termite

· Pyrilla

· Milli bug

· Red mites

BORERS OF SUGAR CANE:

· Stem borer

· Top borer

· Pink borer

· Gurdas pur

Pakistan & Tajikistan Sugar TradeTajikistan has set new conditions for the import of sugar from Pakistan and now it is seeking a price of $20 less than international market instead of already agreed price. For last eight months, Pakistan and Tajikistan are negotiating to mature a sugar export deal, however, the deal is still pending despite several correspondences.
Sources told Business Recorder on Monday that once again Tajikistan has declined to accept Trading Corporation of Pakistan”s (TCP) commercial agreement for export of 30,000 tons white crystal sugar and has set some new conditions for the import of sugar. Following refusal of TCP”s commercial agreement, much awaited sugar export deal between Pakistan and Tajikistan has been further delayed. About one month back, amended commercial agreement for export of sugar was sent to Tajikistan officials for their signature. The second commercial agreement was drafted in consultation with Tajikistan and as per their demand Pakistan had agreed to supply sugar in three tranches instead of a single tranche of 30,000 tons.
However, now Tajikistan has declined to accept TCP”s second commercial agreement as is not willing to procure complete quantity of sugar through three consignments, sources said. Instead of accepting and signing commercial agreement sent by TCP, Agency on State Material Reserves of Tajikistan has asked TCP to reduce the agreed price of the commodity and minimise the consignment quantity by 50 percent.
In recent correspondent with TCP, Tajikistan”s procurement agency has refused to get supply of 10,000 tons in three tranches and now seeking sugar procurement in six phases. “Now, Tajikistan has requested for supply of sugar in six tranches with each tranche of 5,000 tons. At the same time, they are demanding a price of $20 less than international market instead of already agreed price of $528 per ton,” they added.
In the second week of August last year, in the presence of Minister for Commerce Makhdoom Amin Fahim and Nurmahmad Akhmedov Chairman Agency on State Material Reserves of Tajikistan, Pakistan and Tajikistan reached a sugar export deal, under which Pakistan will supply 30,000 tons of white refined crystal sugar to Tajikistan at a discount price, which will be some $20 lower than international market. A price of $528 per ton was fixed for export as at the time of negotiations international price stood at $548 per ton.
With Tajikistan”s new demand, much awaited sugar export deal between two countries has further delayed and now it is being expected that sugar export deal will take some months to mature, sources said. Talks for export of sugar to Tajikistan are in process for last eight months, but continued to delay due to some disputes.
Earlier, there was some confusion on the transportation expenses and later the variety of sugar as during the initial talks, Tajikistan had agreed to import white refined crystal sugar, while later it demand powdered sugar, which is costlier than crystal sugar. TCP has already made all arrangements to start sugar export to Tajikistan and some 30,000 tons of stocks of white crystal sugar have already been allocated for export purposes.

Source: Business Recorder